The female face of Yves Saint Laurent’s menswear line.
The term “menswear” is nearly devoid of meaning these days, as women have deftly made it their own over the past century. Long gone are the days when women were expected to only wear constrictive corsets, heavy underskirts and long elegant dresses. Now we wear suits, pinstripes, plaid shirts and skinny jeans without abandon. Women have even been the face of couture menswear lines. Of course, this drastic shift didn’t happen overnight, or without struggle….
Workers having lunch in typical shirtwaist attire, circa 1910.
World War I catalyzed major shifts towards women’s liberation—not the least of which included fashion. Before this time, social customs were very strict regarding women’s clothing. Ankle-length dresses, overly inhibitive underskirts and painfully tight corsets were a must. As more women entered the workforce during the war though, they demanded less restrictive, more practical attire. Although women continued to wear skirts, their clothing became decidedly more masculine, adopting tailored suit jackets and shirtwaists.
Young women donning “sportswear”, circa 1924.
With post-war optimism spreading, a booming stock market and less restrictive social customs, the 1920’s set the stage for the most dramatic transformation in women’s fashion. Women were flooding the workforce and had gained the right to vote. Fashion trends followed suit (literally!), becoming more masculine, more practical and, for the first time, sporty. Led by “flappers,” corsets were completely abandoned in favor of looser clothing that emphasized a straighter, more boyish figure (flattened bust, loose waist).
Coco Chanel’s rebellious menswear look in the 1920’s.
One of the most influential fashion icons of the 20’s (and to this day!) was Coco Chanel. She rebelliously dismissed the feminine styling of her day and embraced an androgynous style which continues to influence contemporary fashion. She may be famous for her luxury fragrances and haute couture dresses now, but she was one of the first women in history to wear trousers! She paved the way for menswear-inspired clothing, dexterously designing elegant suits, tweeded blazers and simple, yet powerful everyday-wear for women. Throughout the 30’s, Hollywood continued the sky-rocketing popularity of menswear for women with such actresses as Marlene Dietrich and Katharine Hepburn.
Image courtesy of “Make and Mend for Victory” booklet, at Cargo Cult Craft.
During WWII, “fashion” took a back-burner and menswear became women’s clothing out of necessity. With post-Depression-era sensibilities and strict rationing of raw materials, women were encouraged to “Make Do and Mend,” often remaking mens clothing into their own (since the men were away at war). As a result, suits became even more popular and women’s fashion absorbed the use of classic menswear fabric and patterns. Military styling also became fashionable during this era, with the use of epaulets and large bellows pockets, as witnessed with cropped “Eisenhower Jackets” that have made a resurgence in recent years. At Peruvian Connection, we love the edgy juxtaposition of military details on an elegant, “feminine” garment.
YSL’s “smoking jacket”, circa 1966.
Yves Saint Laurent took menswear-inspired styling to new (sexier) heights with his “Smoking” Tuxedo Jacket. Created in 1966, his Tuxedo Jacket was hailed as the alternative to the Little Black Dress. As he said himself, “For women, the tuxedo is an indispensable outfit, which they feel comfortable with, so they can be who they are. This is style, not fashion. Fads come and go, style is forever.” To up the sensual, womanly appeal, he encouraged women to wear only their bra underneath–a trend that seems to be taking off in recent years! Undoubtedly, the Tuxedo continues to be an “indispensable outfit” for women, riddling runways, filling magazines and inspiring designers all across the world. Just check out our Kelston Blazer!
Diane Keaton in “Annie Hall,” 1977. Image courtesy of IMDB.
Although Coco Chanel, Marlene Dietrich and Katharine Hepburn rocked trousers before the 30’s, it really wasn’t until the 70’s that women commonly started wearing pants (meaning it was no longer rebellious!). In fact, it wasn’t until 1972 that the United States banned school dress codes that required girls to wear dresses!
And then came “Annie Hall.” No one can deny the indelible print left by Diane Keaton’s menswear-clad character on the fashion world. With her cool, casual menswear styling, she helped popularize the Bowler Hat, vests, wide ties and button-up shirts on women—a look that is still popular to this day!
Classic 80’s: graphic prints and bold, in-your-face shoulders. Image courtesy of totally80s
Another look that has yet to be forgotten: the iconic shoulder pads of the 80’s. They may seem laughable now, but, surprisingly enough, shoulder pads were associated with “power dressing”—a way for women in the workforce to show that they were equals to men. This time women’s fashion wasn’t borrowing from menswear per say, rather we were borrowing the look of their broad shoulders!
Making menswear our own. Image courtesy of practicalenrichment.com.
These days, “menswear” is everywhere in women’s fashion—from sculptural shoulders, buttoning vests, plaid patterns, classic fedoras and military trench coats to slouchy boyfriend jeans and suit sets. But, we’ve made it our own—cinching in waists, adding ribbons or lace, brightening colors and softening fabrics! Check out some of our favorite menswear-inspired pieces.
by guest blogger, Kezia Huseman
What happens when you live in a place for a long time is that you get used to everything. For me in Cusco, for example, the lack of traffic regulations doesn’t seem that dangerous, the cold doesn’t feel that cold, and being the only light-haired maiden in a crowd is part of daily life. It isn’t until someone comes and visits you that you notice the anomalies, and the splendor, of where you are.
The Sacred Valley on the way to Machu Picchu.
Just recently, three of my most favorite people came and visited me in Peru. Who were they, you ask? None other than fellow blood-Tonganoxians—my younger brothers, commonly referred to as The Brothers. For two and a half weeks, we vacationed to Puno and Lake Titicaca, hiked all the way to Machu Picchu, and explored in and around the city of Cusco.
At Lake Titicaca. From left to right: Gad, Zeb, Kezia, Asher.
Prior to their arrival, we talked frequently about what they should pack. Because of the high altitude, the temperature gradient during the day is quite large. I instructed The Brothers to pack lots of layers and a light jacket for nighttime. When they arrived however, I was told, “Why did you tell us to bring a light jacket? It’s COLD!” I know it’s cold, but I guess I’m just used to sweating during the day in the sun and then shivering in my unheated apartment at night.
The brothers with Cusco and the Andes in the background.
There were several “Peruvianisms” like that which The Brothers pointed out. For example, squeezing as many people into a public bus (small van) as possible, having a flat rate for all taxi rides, eating delicious popsicles on the street for the equivalent of 10 US cents, using coins for most purchases, and boiling water before drinking it.
The brothers eating churros.
The oddities of Peru may seem strange at first, but they are what make it special and intriguing and exciting to visit. I suppose I could have warned The Brothers about a few things a bit more than I did, but I’m glad I didn’t. Discovering for yourself what makes a place distinct and exceptional is the fun of traveling.
Zeb ziplining upside down in the Urubamba River valley.
While being accustomed to Cusco inhibited me from sharing all the oddities with The Brothers prior to their arrival, being a local also had its advantages during their stay. I know the best eateries, the cheapest/quickest routes, the people to know, the non-tourist shops, and the hidden treasures—the things even the guide books forget.
A poinsettia plant in full bloom along the Inca Trail.
I’d be more than happy to share all the secret places of Cusco, but this blog simply isn’t long enough. But you know…better yet…come visit! Why should I tell you everything when you can see it all for yourself?
Railroad tracks on the three hour journey to Machu Picchu.
“To travel is to live.” –Hans Christian Anderson
A Peruvian woman carrying her child in the traditional way, on her back in a blanket (manta).
Peruvianism: a norm of Peru which appears strange/interesting/surprising to most foreigners at first; they are not negative, but rather different.
Despite it’s single square-mile radius, New York’s Garment District has been at the forefront of the world’s fashion industry for hundreds of years. The New York fashion industry started booming in the mid-19th century, thanks to the development of mass produced, ready-to-wear clothing. With ready-to-wear clothing now available at every corner it can be hard to imagine a time when clothing was all handmade, either at home or by custom tailors. With the invention of the sewing machine in the 1850s, the need for mass amounts of uniforms for the American Civil War and the large influx of immigrants equipped with the skill of tailoring, it was the perfect setting for a radical shift in the fashion industry–and New York City was there to lead the way.
Around this same time (mid-19th century), the first department stores began popping up in New York, cultivating the fashion and shopping culture that now defines the city through window displays and merchandising. As the clothing manufacturing picked up more and more speed, so did the shopping, with store fronts often standing right beside the very factory that produced the clothes inside. In fact, before WWII, manufacturers were in charge of every part of production-from designing to sales, which made the central city location even more crucial.
With so many other factors to oversee, it’s no surprise that early clothing manufacturers kept their focus mostly on production, not design. Instead, they often copied designs coming from the fashion-mecca of the time: Paris. New York began garnering esteem as a design-hub when the tragic Nazi occupation of Paris cut the city off from the rest of the world. On one hand, there was a greater demand for New York’s ready-to-wear clothing, as more women entered the workforce during the war and had less time to make their own clothing. On the other hand, garments were becoming more specialized as the design and marketing aspects began to separate from the manufacturing of garments.
As this separation between the design and the manufacture of clothing widened, there was a dramatic decline in New York-based manufacturing. Since the two aspects were no longer fused, production began shifting to overseas locations in a drive to reduce costs. The Garment District continues to be the creative center for designers, but the levels of manufacturing are no where near what they used to be–at one point, 78% of America’s clothing was made in New York.
Thanks to the hard work of dedicated unions and committed designers, the manufacturing side of the Garment District is still alive today. Peruvian Connection is proud to support highly skilled clothing manufacturers in New York (and across the globe!). Some of our favorite pieces were not only designed in the heart of the city….they were also sewn with care in the District itself. Check out the New York-made pieces from our latest collection:
Hamburg Car Coat
As eco-awareness spreads around the world, it’s refreshing to remember the natural, sustainable practices in places such as Peru. Natural dyes and fabrics are not simply a trend in Peru, they are a way of life. Peruvian textile techniques are a time-honored tradition, with roots that extend back hundreds of years, well before the advent of chemicals and synthetic dyes. Although Peru was not immune to the spread of synthetic dyes in the late 19th/early 20th century, many Peruvians have continued to produce eco-friendly dyes from insect, plant and mineral sources. Peru has seen a resurgence in natural dye production over the past few decades, as demand has steadily increased.
photo: Kelsey Quam
The bold red hues that characterize many Andean textiles often start with a bug: the Cochineal. As early as the 15th century, the Aztecs and Mayans were extracting red dyes from the cochineal. Cochineal feed on the prickly pear cactus, which thrives in the Sacred Valley of Peru. Cochineal yields over 20 shades of red, pink, and even blue depending on the type of fixant used. Cochineal is also used as a food additive, and is the only natural red dye approved for consumption by the FDA.
Peruvians also extract red dye from an indigenous red flower, the Achancaray, or madder root, which is one of the earliest known red dyes in mankind. Mot’e mot’e, Yamamiyo, and Nukch’u are native Andean plants also used for red dye. While these alternatives are in use, cochineal is favored for its unique red colors that mark the beauty of Andean textiles. For more information on cochineal, see the book Cochineal Red: The Art History of a Color by Elena Phipps.
Yellow and orange dyes are made from the flowers of the Qolle tree or Quico flowers, both indigenous plants of Peru. Orange dyes can also be extracted from Beard Lichen, known as Qaqa Sunka in Quechua.
The color green can be derived from a gamut of plant and mineral sources, with Ch’illca, a green leafy shrub with white flowers, being one of the most common. The essential oil found in Ch’illca also has many medicinal purposes, and can be used to help protect and heal Alpaca skin.
Indigo is one of the oldest and most coveted dyes in the world, used in ancient India to create gorgeous blue hues to be worn only by royalty. Indigo is still used as a natural dye source, but it can be rare in Peru as it does not grow in the region. Instead, Peruvians tend to rely on a combination of Tara, a native pod, and Colpa, an iron sulfate, to create natural blue dyes.
While synthetic dye is readily available and much easier to use, cultural revitalization programs – such as dyeing workshops sponsored by NGOs, cooperatives, and textile projects, bring hope to indigenous weavers in revitalizing the ancient textile techniques.
There are many beautiful textiles and garments produced without any dyes at all. Alpaca fleece is available in a beautiful range of natural colors, including black, grey, white and caramel.